The Writings of African-Americans®: What is Genocide?

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Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) coined the term from Greek geno, meaning tribe and Latin cide, meaning killing. Genocide is an International Legal Term from the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide.

Genocide is the deliberate and systematic killing or destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. Genocide decribes violent crimes commited against groups with the intent to destroy, kill, or remove the existence of the group.

The Groups are defined as:

  • National Group-identity is defined by a common country of nationality or national origin.
  • Ethnic Group-identity is defined by common cultural traditions, language or heritage.
  • Racial Group-identity defined by physical characteristics.
  • Religious Group-identity is defined by common religious creeds, beliefs, doctrines, practices, or rituals.

The Writings of African-Americans®: Humanitarian Solutions with International World Management & Leadership

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The Writings of African-Americans®: Jihad: An Anti Israel-U.S. Relationship Concept of Osama bin Laden from the 1980s

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According to The Wall Street Journal’s Wednesday, March 23, 2011 issue,  Israeli attacks on militant targets in Gaza killed at least eight Palestinians, part of a rise in hostilities that began with a Hamas strike on Saturday, while NATO forces have for four days authorized air strikes against Lybia, a location Al Qaeda operates out of.

Many Islamic groups like Al Qaeda out of Lybia lead by Osama bin Laden believe that the relationship between Israel and the U.S. gives them the right to Jihad, from Al Qaeda this has been a strength since the 1980s.

Like other terrorist and para-terrorist issues of this age. civilians have been assaulted more by these extremist groups than military forces.

Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have issued reports on these activities in the past. From an article written about The Taliban, another terrorist and para-terrorist group:

Human Rights Watch’s (2008) report on “Troops in Contact” Airstrikes and civilian death in Afghanistan, section VII Recommendations: To Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and other opposition armed groups are: “Cease using civilians as shields, take all feasible precautions to protect civilians from the effects of attack…, stop feigning civilian status during attacks…, affirm commitments to follow international humanitarian law…

Amnesty International (2009) report on Getting Away With Murder? The Impunity of International Forces in Afghanistan, states that the, “International Military Forces In Afghanistan include: Operation Enduring Freedom , The NATO-led UN mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)”. There are other agencies present as well including United Nations Convention Against Torture and Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (Scott, 2009 [With Mounting Violence A surge On Taliban Support…])

The Law of Armed Conflict from the Four Geneva Conventions may be necessary at this time for para-terrorist activities to alert the world of the dangers to civilians.  The Purpose of the Four Geneva Conventions:

“…the protection of civilian persons in time of war…”j0422423

“…all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties. Even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them…Even if not present…the Powers who are parties there to shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations..”

The Taliban and Hamas have governmental bodies and Al Qaeda does  not. The danger these para-terrorist pose, governmental body or not, is in the International Relations of Power, for this, power must:

  • be a goal,
  • the influence and control measurable,
  • have victory in conflict and attainment of security, and
  • control over resources and capabilities.

Degrees of International Relations Power are:

  1. Super Power,
  2. Great Power,
  3. Regional Power, and
  4. Middle Power.

These degrees of power can be “hard” or “soft”. A Pulitzer Centerendorsed title on the Taliban about accurate information , is a question on “softpower”.

In conclusion, the anti Irsael-U.S. Relationship attitude expresses by violence that started in the 1980s is still present. While the U.S. & NATO airstike Lybia,where Al Qaeda operates, Hamas has started a mini-war with Israel. The useof power by the terrorist, para-terrorist, and extremist groups is felt more with the civilian population than military. As a result, the enforcement of tThe Law of Armed Conflict may be necessary.

Update November 28, 2012 “A Year Later”

According to’s Homepage News Al Qeada, which operates out of Lybia, is causing problems for those fighting human trafficking. In the state of California, petitions are being used to draft laws against human trafficking.

The Writings of African-Americans®: United States of American Human Rights Issues: Labor Unions

This topic is endorsed by The Writings of African-Americans (TWOAA) by Tres Mali Scott.

The most protected “human rights” issues in the U.S. is labor. Labor Union is the American English term that comes from Trade Union, a British English term.

A labor union is  legal representation of workers banded together for common goals. This concept originated to end mistreatment  and underpayment of employees during the Industrial Revolution. Also to maintain and improve employment conditions.

Recently, Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker has officially taken away nearly all collective bargaining rights from the vast majority of the state’s public employees.

Walker signed the bill to do so privately Friday morning. He planned an afternoon news conference in the Capitol.

References: (2011) (2011) (2011) (2011)

The Writings of African-Americans®: Africa and a BBC News Report on Rwanda

On February 3, 2011 the BBC NEWS on AFRICA reports that Rwanda is promoting vasectomy to stem the population growth. Many reports of genocide and deforestation in Rwanda and other African countries makes this look like another form of genocide.

The Rwandan government has been encouraging male circumcision since 2008 as the UN World Health Organization says it reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV infection (