The Writings of African-Americans®: After 18 Years of Peace: Somalia –Under Terrorist Attack

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, now Somalia’s Parliament requests international assistance against terrorist. The Somalia Government has declared a state of emergency. The surrounding countries are awaiting the international communities response and framework to provide assistance.

The Shabab-one of the Islamist Militias and most fearsome threatened to bomb the buildings of Nairobi if Kenya intervenes. The purpose of these terrorist attacks, per the New York Times on Sunday June 21, 2009 is to “destabilize the region”.

This breakaway nation in the southeastern part of Ethiopia is known as nomadic and pastoral people. Now they are not only awaiting diplomatic recognition but also assistance from the international community. The 13 million people in Somalia are predominately Islamic and has been since the 1400s.

Map picture

Terrorist and spend a lot of time and money, sometimes more than a countries national defense funding. Many are funded by illegal activities and use technology that is more advanced than most are use to seeing a an average bases. Terrorist use religion to recruit the youth, and Somalia is predominately Islamic. Para-terrorism is used when normal means of getting agreement for assistance is refused.

It is unfortunate that many terrorist and para-terrorist groups have more international influence than some countries. For example, the Taliban is the past governmental body of Afghanistan, it controlled Afghanistan from 1996-2001.

With no international recognition for peace, can Somalia get international assistance?

The Writings of African-Americans®: What is Humanitarian Aid?

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Humanitarian Aid is a response to a crisis or emergency and is material, food, water, clothing, etc. assistance for saving lives, alleviating suffering, and maintaining human dignity, and does not address the underlying socioeconomic factors which lead toVegetable Bounty the crisis or emergency. Internationally,this is invoked two ways:

  1. Peacetime- Human Rights Law
  2. Armed conflict- International Humanitarian Law

International Humanitarian Law (Armed conflict) is also considered accepted Customary Law and a universal codification standard. The has the UN office for the Coordination of j0362859 Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), formed in 1991 by the General Assembly Resolution 46/182 & the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) replacing the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator formed in 1972. Humanitarian Aid is also called:

  • International Relief and
  • Development Aid

There are Seven Conventions and Nine Protocols that include International Humanitarian Law (Armed conflict). Conventions are defined as standard presentations and protocols are defined as, the simplest-rules governing the syntax, semantics, & synchronization of communication and the lowest protocols defines the behavior of a hardware. The conventions and protocols for International Humanitarian Law (Armed conflict) are:

  1. The of 1949.
  2. Additional Protocols of 1977, protection of victims of armed conflicts.
  3. The 1954 Convention, protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict plus its two protocols.
  4. The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention.
  5. The 1980 Conventional Weapons Convention and its five protocols.
  6. The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention.
  7. The 1997Ottawa convention on anti-personnel mines.
  8. The 2000 Optional Protocol to the convention on the Rights of child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.

International Humanitarian Law (Armed conflict) is used:

  • only for armed conflict, j0423008
  • once the conflict has begun, and
  • equally applied to both sides regardless of who started the fighting.

International armed conflicts are those in which at least two states are involved, the use of the word states for these purposes implies the word country is included or synonymous.

Human Rights Law applies to peacetime and many of the provisions are suspended during armed conflict. The United Nations (UN)  has the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), it is the first International statement to use the term “human rights”.

The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights:

  • The right to self determination.
  • The right to own, trade, and dispose of their property freely, and not deprived of their means of subsistence.

The Writings of African-Americans®: What Do Americans Do During Crisis and Emergencies?

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Crisis Reporting by Tres Mali Scott
Crisis Reporting by Tres Mali Scott

According to the American Heritage Dictionary, a crisis is a crucial or decisive point or situation, a turning point, an unstable condition, as in political, social, or economic affairs, involving an impending abrupt or decisive change.

An emergency, according to the American Heritage Dictionary is a serious situation or occurrence that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action.

During crisis and emergencies, plans and procedures are used to reduce injuries and loss of life. National preparedness includes:

  • Terrorist and alerts,
  • The Emergency Broadcast System which interrupts television and radio broadcast to notify of emergencies,
  • Emergency shut down procedures to stop natural gas, water and electricity from leaking,
  • Emergency evacuation plans and procedures,
  • Emergency Drills,
  • Weather watches
  • Emergency agencies like , and
  • Marshall Law.

j0199388Results of crisis and emergency from para-terrorism, are Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Stress Disorder (A Paranormal Psychological Term). The difference between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Stress Disorder is:

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is when the person experiences an event, explosion, crash, etc. The senses are involved.

is when the fallout or residual effect of an event effects or affects the or a population.

An example of a major event in the United States of America that caused both of these Disorders on a massive level and started an economic crisis is 911, also called the New York Bombing and the Oklahoma City Bombing that caused a part of the country that is less likely to experience trauma, traumatized and unstable on a statewide level. The on set:

  1. The individuals that actually experienced the bombings: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
  2. The fallout or residual effects from the bombings- loss of jobs, loss of life, loss of emergency workers, deaths of children: .

As Americans, ways that we recover as individuals and families from crisis and emergencies include:

  • Counseling,
  • Recreational Activities,j0432787
  • Horticulture,
  • Exercise,
  • Hobbies,
  • Reading, and
  • Vacations.

In conclusion, crisis is a crucial turning point that is political, social, or economic and an emergency is an unexpected, serious situation. Both are included in National Preparedness and considered by the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and are results of crisis & emergencies. Counseling, recreational activities, hobbies, vacation, etc. can help elevate the effects and affects of these disorders, that are usually caused by something outside of our control.