The Writings of African-Americans®: Shona, Tswana, Hutu, Tutsi, & Twa: Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Rwanda

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This topic is endorsed in part by The Writings of African-Americans, Crisis Reporting By Tres Mali Scott Pulitzer Center Citizen Journalism 2nd Place Award Winner

In February of 2008 the Pulitzer Center endorsed a title about the civil wars, occurring in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Rwanda. National Geographic has a publication, Book of Peoples of the World, A Guide To Cultures (2007), it has maps of each region and pictures of the native people in a natural scene.

Zimbabwe & Mozambique have a population of about 10 million that are primarily Shona people, nine million in Zimbabwe and southern Mozambique, and Tswana people in Zimbabwe. They speak Korekore, Ndau, and Karanga. The language of the Shona is one of the most widely spoken in southern Africa, and is evident by the number of people that are Shona. The Shona live mostly in villages and their traditional religion is vadzimu or ancestor spirits. The Shona also farm rice, peanuts and raise cattle, sheep, and chickens.

Rwanda has a population of 18 million and in 2004, as a result of the past genocide, Rwanda passed new legislation that forbids political parties from making any reference to ethnic, religious, regional, or clan differences in their names or operations. For several centuries, the Hutu and Tutsi have had a relationship of hostility and occasional violence, while living next door to each other.

Rwanda is known for some of the worst violence of the 20th Century. Following independence in 1962, two countries emerging that had been Rwanda were Urundi or Belgian East Africa. During this violence Hutu seized power. The people of Rwanda are made up of Hutu, Tutsi, & Twa.

In conclusion, the civil wars, deforestation, and the genocide of Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Rwanda have had many at this time endorsing titles and topics that bring these issues to the attention of  the world. , The Writings of African-Americans, , , and have given many words of education on the subject.

Somalia, Ethiopia-Civil Conflict Gone Since 1991: 18 Years Still Awaiting International Recognition

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This topic is endorsed in part by The Writings of African-Americans by Tres Mali Scott, Pulitzer Center Citizen Journalism 2nd Place Award Winner

Considered a breakaway nation, most of the Somali people live in Somaliland, the southeastern part of Ethiopia, known as the Ogaden region. The Somali people are nomadic and pastoral people.

In 2009 A.D., Somaliland still awaits diplomatic recognition from the international community. Somali people live in the “Horn of Africa” and have for about 3,000 years. According to archaeological and historical evidence, the Somali people are called clans.

Some of these clans can be traced back to the Arabian Peninsula and are associated with the Prophet Muhammad’s family, the Sharifs.

British, French, & Italians established territories in Somalia now Somaliland. The British and Italian territories combined and in 1960 became known as the independent Somali Democratic Republic. The

Map picture

French territory has been known as Djibauti since its independence in 1977.

The population of the awaiting Somaliland is 13 million and has been predominately Islamic since the 1400s, and recently Islamic fundamentalism are stronger than the traditional Sufi mystical orders in Somaliland.

In conclusion, Somaliland, Ethiopia’s 13 million Somali people have been awaiting international recognition for 18 years. The civil conflict is gone, a good question would be- If you solve your civil unrest, how does the international community support peace?

Update 06/25/2009

According to the New York Times on Sunday June 21, 2009, after 18 years of peace,Somalia is under terrorist attack and requesting assistance from surrounding countries and the international community.


Davis, Wade, Harrison, David K., Howell, Herbert C. (2007). Book of Peoples of the World A Guide To Cultures. National Geographic Society. National Geographic Books Subsidiary: Washington, D.C.

Terrorist Act In Arkansas USA

Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad previously known as Carlos Bledsoe, 23, killed a United States Solider and wounded another at a Little Rock, Arkansas Military Recruiting Center.

United States Solider, William Long, 23, of Conway, Arkansas died.

United States Solider, Quinton Ezeagwula, 18, of Jacksonville, Arkansas was wounded and stable condition.

Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad’s charges include:

  • Capital Murder
  • plus 16 counts of Committing a Terrorist Act

To learn more about terrorism and para-terrorism click here.

How Central America Effects Terrorism

Crisis Reporting by Tres M. Scott on The Writings of African Americans
Best Bloggs 2010 by Blogged in Crisis Reporting by Tres M. Scott on The Writings of African Americans
This title is endorsed in part by The Writings of African-Americans by Tres Mali Scott   Pulitzer Center Citizen Journalism 2nd Place Award Winner

Central America, from east to west is between the North Pacific Ocean and The Caribbean Sea. Central American countries include:

  1. Southern Mexico
  2. Guatemala
  3. Salvador
  4. Panama
  5. The Dominican Rep.
  6. Cuba
  7. Jamaica
  8. Haiti
  9. The Bahamas
  10. Honduras

From north to south Central America is between Northern Mexico (North America) and Colombia (South America).

Central America has many issues including drug trade, civil wars & unrest, and socialist governments. Many parts of Central America are impoverished.

Why is it important to look at terrorism and Central America. We as a country are now at war, and terrorism is used for political gain. Terrorism is used to manipulate, cause fear,  and intimidate using organized violence for political gain.

Para-terrorism also uses religious practices and beliefs. Most terrorist groups use a religion as a part of the name. Many of these religious practices and beliefs include:

  • Suicide bombings
  • witchcraft
  • Satanism
  • magic
  • sorcery

The theory of Para-terrorism is from paranormal psychology. The term “Para-terrorism” was first coined byTres M. Scott, M.Ed., M.S. in 2008 A.D.

 It includes the use of people, computers, electronics, satellites and signals, various instruments of detection, and forms of quantum physics. Para-terrorism also includes cyberattacks as a techniques:

Terrorist groups are well funded and perpetrate against poor or oppressed populations that, even if they disagree, do not have the means to over them. Especially with the use of para-terrorism, technology.

Central America’s governments do not empower citizens and is a danger for terrorism. Terrorist have money and influence, are extremely aggressive and use local areas to gain support.

In conclusion,  looking back at the “Cold War” a major lesson is location and ability to bomb. Central America is close to the USA and with the rise in terrorism, is a major National Security Threat. Some terrorist groups now use mobile rockets. Has anyone investigated how far these mobile rockets can travel or what type of technology they are using?